The spectrum of crystal oscillator output signals can comprises of various components, as well as the fundamental frequency that can be seen on a spectrum analyser, harmonics, sub-harmonics and spurious signals.
It is possible to use filtering techniques to reduce the harmonic components caused by distortion of the waveform to very low levels.
Spurious signals result from AM and FM signals from other discrete sources within the oscillator, which are reduced significantly in Greenray oscillators.
Random phase noise fluctuations cause phase noise and short-term instability, the difficulty is that most analysers do not have the dynamic range or the 1Hz bandwidth capability to actually measure the phase noise directly.
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