T-14 Armata is a new-generation main battle tank (MBT) developed by Russian company Uralvagonzavod (UVZ). It was officially unveiled for the first time during the Moscow Victory Day Parade in May 2015.
The new combat vehicle is equipped with digitalised equipment, unmanned turret and isolated armored capsule for the crew. The Russian Armed Forces earlier planned to induct 2,300 Armata main battle tanks during 2015 and 2020. However, the mass production of the tanks was delayed due to high costs of the new combat vehicles. The vehicles underwent field-testing in Syria.
Serial production of the T-14 Armata tank is expected to commence in 2021.
T-14 Armata design and features
The T-14 Armata is based on a modular combat platform, which can also serve as a basis for other armoured variants such as heavy infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) and armoured personnel carrier (APC).
The hull is divided into three compartments, a crew cab at forward, an unmanned remote controlled turret in the centre and a power-pack at the rear. The driver sits in the left, gunner in the middle and commander in the right inside a special armoured capsule. Entry and exit are provided through three hatches in front of the hull. The roof of the turret houses a meteorological mast, satellite communications, global navigation satellite system (GLONASS), data-link and radio communications antennae.
The tank measures 10.8m-long, 3.5m-wide and 3.3m-high, and has a combat weight of 48t.
The T-14 Armata is fitted with an unmanned turret mounting a 125mm 2A82-1M smoothbore gun fed by an automatic loader. The turret carries a total of 45 rounds of ammunition, including ready-to-use ammunition. The main gun can also fire laser-guided missiles.
The 2A82 125mm gun can be replaced with a new 2A83 152mm gun in future. The tank can also be fitted with secondary weapons including a Kord 12.7mm machine gun and a PKTM 7.62mm machine gun.
The hull is equipped with a modular armour system made of steel, ceramics and composite materials. The low-silhouette of the tank avoids exposition of the parts to enemy fire, which significantly enhances the safety and survivability of the crew. Also for this purpose, particularly during explosions, the crew capsule is isolated from the automatic loader and ammunition.
The tank is anticipated to offer up to STANAG 4569 Level 5 protection. Its forward portion is covered with reactive armour, whereas the rear is fitted with bar armour to provide added protection against anti-tank rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs). The tank can also be hinged with additional active and passive armour.
The nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, automatic fire suppression system and smoke grenade dischargers aboard the tank further enhance the crew survivability. The new Afghanit hard-kill active protection system on the tank defends incoming anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs), rockets and RPGs.
Observation and fire control
The commander and gunner are provided with multispectral sights with visible scope, thermal channels, and laser rangefinders. The commander’s sight mounted on top of the turret offers a 360° field of view, while the gunner’s sight is fitted with a direct-vision periscope and a laser designator.
The wide-angle cameras fitted on the tank provide a full 360° all-round vision and situational awareness for the crew. The tank is also expected to carry electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) based laser warning receivers.
The T-14 Armata is fitted with a computerised fire control system, which automatically formulates the fire control solution using the data from a muzzle reference system and a wind sensor mounted on the roof of the turret. The tank is also equipped with a battlefield management system.
Engine and mobility
The Armata T-14 is powered by a A-85-3A turbocharged diesel engine, which generates a power output of 1,200hp. The engine is coupled to a 12-speed automatic transmission.
The running gear includes seven dual rubber-tired road wheels on each side. The tank can run at a maximum road speed of 90km/h and has a maximum cruising range of 500km.