Uragan 9K57 Multiple Launch Rocket System, Russia
The Uragan or Hurricane 9K57 is a 16-round 220mm multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) manufactured by the Splav State Research and Production Association, Tula, Russia. Splav also produce the Smerch, Grad and Prima MLRS. Also called as BM-27 or 9P140, the MLRS system entered into service in 1977.
The mission of the launcher is to defeat troops and combat materiel in concentrated areas and also to remotely lay anti-tank area denial mines in a combat zone at distances of 10km to 35km.
The system has been battle proven and is in service with the Russian Army and is also exported worldwide. The Uragan has a reputation for high reliability, simplicity and speed of operation and maintenance and a short salvo time. Splav delivered 13 Uragan rocket artillery to Yemen in 1994 and nine to Eritrea in 2007. The overseas operators include Belarus, Guinea, Moldova, Syria, Angola, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Ukraine.
The Russian Army is upgrading Uragan MLRS systems with new navigation and targeting systems.
Uragan multiple launch rocket system
The launcher assembly (6+4+6, 220mm rocket tubes) is mounted on a ZIL-135 8×8 truck chassis. The truck is powered by a 260hp single diesel engine and can accommodate a crew of six. The launcher can rotate through 240°.
In order to fire, four stabilising jacks on the chassis are used, one on either side of the vehicle and two at the back. The maximum rate of fire is two rounds a second. The launchers are lowered and rotated to one side for reloading.
Another truck carrying 16 rockets for reloading is equipped with a reloading arm. A rammer is used to reload the launch tubes.
The 9K57 Uragan uses a range of rocket projectiles: the 9M27F rocket projectile fitted with the HE-Frag warhead, and the rocket projectiles 9M27K, 9M59, and 9M27K2. The Uragan MLRS can fire spin-stabilised rockets loaded with chemical, high explosive and incendiary payloads up to 35km to 40km range.
9M27F rocket projectile
The 9M27F rocket projectile fitted with the HE-Frag (high-explosive fragmentation) warhead is for defeating manpower and the destruction of airfield runways, crossings, command posts, depots and other installations. The 280kg rocket projectile, of length 4,832mm and calibre 220mm, carries an explosive charge of 51.7kg and is armed with a 100kg warhead.
9M27K rocket projectile
The 9M27K 220mm rocket projectile is fitted with fragmentation submunitions scattering cluster warhead. It can engage manpower and soft-skinned targets in concentration areas. The 270kg rocket projectile is armed with a 90kg warhead and carries fragmentation submunitions of 30kg.
9M59 rocket projectile
The 9M59 rocket projectile is equipped with a cluster warhead fitted with antitank mines and is for remote mine laying in front of enemy combat materiel units located in the battle zone and in concentrated areas. The 220mm calibre 9M59 is a 270kg rocket projectile of length 5,178mm, armed with an 89.5kg warhead. Each projectile carries nine mines. The salvo of one launch vehicle is capable of laying a mine dispersion area of 250ha.
The 5kg anti-tank mines destroy the armoured vehicles from below. The mines are armed with a proximity fuse and directional 1.85kg explosive charge with high armour-piercing ability. The mines have a self destruct time of 16 to 24 hours.
9M27K2 rocket projectiles
The 9M27K2 rocket projectile has a 89.5kg cluster warhead fitted with 24 anti-tank mines and is for remote mine laying in front of enemy combat units on the battle front and in concentrated areas. The 220mm-calibre 9M27K2 rocket has a weight of 270kg and length 5,178mm. One salvo of the launch vehicle creates a mine dispersion area of more than 150ha.
PTM-1 HE tank-disabling mine
The PTM-1 HE tank-disabling pressure-action mine is designed to destroy tank tracks rather than to pierce the armour of the tank. The 1.5kg mines are armed with a 1.1 high-explosive charge type PW-12S. The self-destruction time of the PTM--1 is three to 40 hours.