Multiple Launch Rocket System
Splav State Research and Production Association
Understand the impact of the Ukraine conflict from a cross-sector perspective with the Global Data Executive Briefing: Ukraine Conflict
The Uragan or Hurricane 9K57 is a 16-round 220mm multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) developed by the Splav State Research and Production Association, Tula, Russia.
Splav also produces the Smerch, Grad and Prima MLRS. Also called the BM-27 or 9P140, the MLRS system entered service in 1977.
The mission of the launcher is to defeat troops and combat materiel in concentrated areas, as well as remotely lay anti-tank area denial mines in a combat zone at distances between 10km and 35km.
The combat-proven system is in service with the Russian Army and has also been exported worldwide. The Uragan has a reputation for high reliability, simplicity and speed of operation and maintenance and a short salvo time. Splav delivered 13 Uragan rocket artillery to Yemen in 1994 and nine to Eritrea in 2007. The overseas operators include Belarus, Guinea, Moldova, Syria, Angola, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Ukraine.
The Russian Army upgraded the Uragan MLRS systems with new navigation and targeting systems. Splav developed the Uragan-1M, which is the latest version of the Uragan MLRS. The bi-calibre self-propelled system is the first Russian MLRS with pack loading. The MLRS can launch 220mm and 300mm rockets. The serial production of Uragan-1M started in August 2021.
The Uragan MLRS participated in the Allied Resolve 2022, a joint military exercise conducted by Belarus and Russia in February 2022.
Uragan multiple launch rocket system
The launcher assembly (6+4+6, 220mm rocket tubes) is mounted on the ZIL-135 8×8 truck chassis. The truck is powered by a 260hp single diesel engine and can accommodate a crew of six. The launcher can rotate through 240°.
Four stabilising jacks on the chassis are used to fire, one on either side of the vehicle and two at the back. The maximum rate of fire is two rounds a second. The launchers are lowered and rotated to one side for reloading.
Another truck carrying 16 rockets for reloading is equipped with a reloading arm. A rammer is used to reload the launch tubes.
The 9K57 Uragan uses a range of rocket projectiles: the 9M27F rocket projectile fitted with the high-explosive fragmentation (HE-Frag) warhead, and the rocket projectiles 9M27K, 9M59, and 9M27K2. The Uragan MLRS can also fire spin-stabilised rockets loaded with chemical, high-explosive and incendiary payloads up to a range of 40km.
Rocket projectiles of Uragan 9K57 MLRS
The 9M27F 220mm rocket projectile fitted with the HE-Frag warhead is intended for defeating manpower and the destruction of airfield runways, crossings, command posts, depots, and other installations. The 280kg rocket projectile measures 4.83m-long and carries an explosive charge of 51.9kg.
The 9M27K 220mm rocket projectile is fitted with fragmentation submunitions scattering cluster warhead. It can engage manpower and soft-skinned targets in concentration areas. The 270kg rocket projectile is armed with a 90kg warhead and carries fragmentation submunitions of 30kg.
The 9M59 rocket projectile holds an 89.5kg cluster warhead fitted with antitank mines for remote mine laying in front of enemy combat materiel units in the battle zone and concentrated areas. The 220mm calibre 9M59 is a 270kg rocket projectile with a length of 5.17m. Each projectile carries nine mines and the salvo of one launch vehicle is capable of dispersing mines over an area of 250ha.
The 9M27K2 rocket projectile carries an 89.5kg cluster warhead fitted with 24 anti-tank mines for remote mine laying. The 220mm calibre 9M27K2 rocket has a length of 5.17m and a weight of 270kg. One salvo of the launch vehicle creates a mine dispersion area of more than 150ha.
The 5kg anti-tank mines destroy the armoured vehicles from below. The mines are armed with a proximity fuse and directional 1.85kg explosive charge with high armour-piercing ability. The mines have a self-destruct time range of 16 to 24 hours.
The PTM-1 HE tank-disabling pressure-action mine is designed to destroy tank tracks rather than to pierce the armour of the tank. The 1.5kg mines are armed with a 1.1 high-explosive charge type PW-12S. The self-destruction time of the PTM-1 is three to 40 hours.