Type 10 (TK-X) is a fourth-generation main battle tank in service with Japan Ground Self Defence Force (JGSDF).
The secondary armament of the tank is a M2HB 12.7mm heavy machine gun.
The tank has the capacity to accommodate three crew members.
The turret is armed with a 120mm L44 smooth-bore gun.

Type 10 (TK-X) is an advanced fourth-generation main battle tank (MBT) manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for the Japan Ground Self Defence Force (JGSDF).

The MBT is capable of a wide range of missions including anti-tank warfare, mobile strikes, special operations force attacks and other contingencies.

The Type 10 MBT is the replacement for JGSDF’s Type 74 and Type 90 MBT fleet. It features significant enhancements in manoeuvrability, protection, fire power and performance.

Development of the Type 10 MBT

The development of the Type 10 MBT was initiated by the Technical Research and Development Institute (TRDI) in 2002. A prototype of the tank was completed in 2006 and its running tests were conducted through 2007 and 2008, followed by shooting and networking trials. TRDI completed the development in 2009 and started producing the tanks in 2010.

The Japanese Ministry of Defence placed an order with the main contractor Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for up to 13 Type-10 MBTs in 2010. The tanks entered service with Japan in January 2012. A total of 76 Type-10 tanks are operational with the JGSDF as of May 2020.

JGSDF demonstrated the Type-10 MBT capability during the annual live-fire exercise at the Higashi-Fuji firing range in Gotemba in Shizuoka Prefecture in May 2020.

Type 10 MBT design and features

The main battle tank accommodates a crew of three including commander, gunner and driver. It has a length of 9.4m, width of 3.2m and height 2.3m.

The gross weight of the tank is 44t and the combat weight of 48t. The MBT can be transported by trains and trucks.

Armament and protection features of Type 10 tank

The Type 10 MBT features a turret fitted with an automatic loading system. The turret can be rotated through 360° in traverse to determine the enemy targets. It is armed with a 120mm L44 smooth-bore gun, which is licence-built by Japan Steel Works. The turret is also fitted with smoke grenade launchers.

The secondary armament of the Type 10 MBT consists of a M2HB 12.7mm heavy machine gun and a Type 74 7.62mm co-axial machine gun.

The tank’s hull is equipped with nano-crystal steel, fourth generation modular ceramic composite armour for protection against rocket propelled grenade (RPG) rounds, HEAT projectiles, and anti-tank missiles. The add-on modules can be easily removed and installed to alter the protection levels.

It is also fitted with a nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection system and automatic fire suppression systems.

Observation and fire control of the Japanese main battle tank

The Type 10 tank is equipped with an enhanced fire control system and a laser range finder to engage stationary and moving targets. The onboard digital battlefield management system (BMS) provides increased situational awareness by displaying the required information.

The commander’s station is fitted with a panoramic sight, mounted on the right of the turret. It provides day / night observation and target identification.

The tank also boasts of advanced sensor systems and sophisticated C4I (command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence) equipment, which allows the tank to communicate and share information with other tanks in the GSDF network.

The intelligence C4I system also enables the MBT to work together with the troops in the infantry’s outdoor computer network, Regiment Command Control System (ReCS) during integrated combat operations.

Type 10 MBT engine and mobility

The Type 10 tank is powered by water-cooled, four-cycle, eight-cylinder diesel engines coupled with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) gearbox. The engine generates a power of 1,200hp.

The tank is equipped with hydro pneumatic active suspension and offers superior mobility. It can accomplish a speed of about 70km/h forward as well as reverse. It has an operational range of about 440km.