Combat Vehicle 90 (CV90), also called Stridsfordon 90 (Strf 90), represents a family of armoured combat vehicles developed by BAE Systems Land Systems Hägglunds (formerly Alvis Hägglunds) of Örnsköldsvik and Saab Bofors Dynamics of Karlskoga, Sweden.
The chassis of CV90 was originally built by Land Systems Hägglunds, while Saab Bofors supplied the turret. BAE Systems Hägglunds currently produces the entire vehicle.
The development of the CV90 began in 1984 in response to the requirements outlined by the Swedish Army for a family of armoured combat vehicles with high tactical and strategic mobility, air defence and anti-tank capability, high survivability, and protection.
Production began in 1993 and more than 1,300 vehicles in 15 variants have been delivered, as of January 2021. The 1,000th vehicle was delivered in January 2009. The CV90 is in service with the armies of Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Finland, the Netherlands, Estonia, and Denmark.
Versions of the CV90 family include the CV9040 with 40mm gun and the export variant, the CV9030 with 30mm gun. The CV9040 has been in service with the Swedish Army since 1993 with nearly 500 systems delivered and is armed with a 40mm Bofors L/70 cannon. Final deliveries were completed in September 2002.
The sighting systems of several Swedish CV9040 vehicles have been upgraded with an LIRC thermal imaging system from FLIR Systems of Portland, Oregon. LIRC is based on QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector) technology.
BAE Systems developed several export versions of CV90 for international customers. In July 2010, the company unveiled a new variant of CV90, called Armadillo. Another new variant, CV90 MkIV with substantial capability upgrades was launched in January 2018. The vehicle incorporates state-of-the-art technology ADAPTIV, which improves its stealth and survivability capabilities and makes the vehicle undetectable by enemy surveillance units.
CV90 infantry fighting vehicle (IFV)
The CV90 infantry fighting vehicle is compatible with a range of armaments, sights, and fire control systems to suit the mission requirement.
All versions carry a crew of three: commander, driver, and gunner, together with up to eight soldiers. The vehicle information is displayed on on-board vehicle information system (VIS).
Self-protection and armour on Combat Vehicle 90
The all-welded steel hull can be upgraded with add-on armour, which protects against 30mm APFSDS (armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot) rounds.
The vehicle has a low radar, acoustic and infrared signature. A fire detection and extinguishing system is fitted, and full nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) protection is provided.
CV9030 MkII/Grenadier Tank 2000 details
The CV9030 MkII, called the Grenadier Tank 2000, is in service with the Swiss Army. 186 vehicles were delivered between September 2002 and December 2005.
The 9030 MkII is fitted with an ATK 30mm/40mm Bushmaster II Mk44 cannon, Saab Systems UTAAS anti-aircraft sight and the digital Hagglunds vehicle control system (HVCS).
HVCS includes a video network system with displays at each crew station and vehicle built-in test system. It can be extended with a battlefield management system and the Hagglunds defensive aids suite (HDAS).
Finland operates 57 CV9030 MkII vehicles and has ordered 42 additional vehicles, out of a total requirement of 102.
Patria Hagglunds (a joint venture company) was responsible to build the vehicle turrets and the first was delivered in April 2002. A second contract for 45 vehicles was placed in June 2004.
In September 2003, Land Systems Hagglunds received a contract from the Norwegian Army to upgrade 17 CV9030N vehicles to the CV9030S configuration. The upgraded vehicles, called CV9030NF1, have an additional mine protection kit, new air-cooling system and rear-view camera.
Patria Hagglunds has been awarded a contract to integrate the AMOS (advanced mortar system) on a Swedish Army CV90 infantry fighting vehicle.
The AMOS twin 120mm mortar system has a direct fire capability and a digital, computerised fire control system, which can fire a variety of mortar bombs including the Strix ‘smart’ mortar, developed by Saab Bofors Dynamics. In December 2002, AMOS was shortlisted as a candidate for the US future combat system programme.
In July 2006, the Swedish Army ordered two AMOS systems for delivery in 2011.
In December 2004, the Netherlands signed a contract for 184 CV9035 MkIII vehicles and eight CV9035 instruction vehicles. The vehicle entered service with the Dutch Army in December 2008. Van Halteren Metaal of the Netherlands is responsible for turret assembly and integration. Deliveries concluded by 2011.
The CV9035 MkIII features a Bushmaster III 35/50 cannon, Saab UTAAS fire control system with ammunition programmer, a rotating cupola which provides hunter-killer capabilities and commander and gunner stabilised day / night sights, with third-generation thermal cameras.
The MkIII has a new armour package, supplied by RUAG Land Systems with increased protection against top-attack weapons and mines, and fitted with Hägglunds’ defensive aids suite (DAS) with laser warner and smoke grenades.
In June 2005, Thales Optronics was awarded the contract for the vehicle’s MT-DNGS commander’s sight, which includes the Claire mid-wave (3 to 5 micron) thermal camera, and the UTAAS with the long-wave (8 to 12 micron) Catherine XP thermal camera.
In December 2005, Denmark ordered 45 CV9035 MkIII vehicles. The first was delivered in October 2007 and deliveries concluded in September 2009. They were deployed in Afghanistan in March 2010.
The CV90120-T is a light tank which has a Hägglunds turret mounted on the latest CV90 chassis. RUAG Land Systems of Switzerland has developed the fully stabilised 120mm high-pressure smoothbore CTG 120/L50 gun, which has a rate of fire of up to 14 rounds a minute.
Saab Systems of Sweden has developed the fire control system, UTAAS and the panoramic low-signature commander’s sight, which gives the tank hunter / killer capabilities.
The tank’s battlefield management system is based on fully integrated, scalable and open electronic architecture and a video network with displays at each crew station.
The tank’s defensive aids suite (DAS) includes laser, radar and missile approach warning systems, as well as an MSA (multispectral aerosols) active countermeasure system with top attack radar that can identify smart indirect munitions.
Survivability is further enhanced by the stealth turret design and radar absorbing track skirts.
CV9040 anti-aircraft vehicle
The CV9040 anti-aircraft vehicle has been in service with the Swedish Army (42 vehicles) since 1995. It is fitted with a Thales TRS 2620 reconnaissance radar and automatic threat evaluation.
The vehicle is capable of engaging aerial targets, including helicopters, at ranges up to 4,000m. It is fitted with Saab Systems UTAAS anti-aircraft gun sight for the Bofors 40mm L/70 cannon, which includes a thermal imager, laser rangefinder and fire control computer.
CV90 forward observation vehicle
The CV90 forward observation vehicle is equipped with an enhanced sighting system, incorporating a laser rangefinder for target detection and acquisition. The vehicle has improved communication and navigation systems. The turret has a 7.62mm machine gun.
CV90 forward command vehicle
The CV90 forward command vehicle is a mobile combat C3 (command, control and communications) vehicle equipped with advanced communication and command equipment. The turret is fitted with a 7.62mm general-purpose machine gun.
The command vehicle provides accommodation for a crew of three, along with additional workstations for mission crew.
CV90 armoured recovery vehicle
The CV90 armoured recovery vehicle is operated by a crew of four and is capable of applying a 72t line-pull in any direction. The cupola is armed with a 7.62mm machine gun.
Recovery operations are carried out using two Rotzler hydraulic winches and a hydraulically operated crane. A dozer blade is fitted on the front of the vehicle.
Combat Vehicle 90 Armadillo
The new variant, the CV90 Armadillo, offers additional protection and flexibility without a turret. The vehicle weighs 27t and has a payload capacity of 8t for armour and additional equipment. It can provide horizontal ballistic protection against mines of about 10kg.
The Armadillo variant also has an external fire suppression system and Saab LEDS-150 active protection system. The future developments of the CV90 will include bridge layer and other variants with enhanced protection.
CV90 MkIV is a fifth generation CV90 infantry fighting vehicle offering improved speeds and equally improved handling in the battlefield. The CV90 MkIV has improved Scania engine with 1000hp power rating and X300 heavy duty transmission system. The Gross vehicle weight has been increased from 35t to 37t.
The CV90 MkIV is fitted with a D-series turret that can accommodate 30/40mm-, 35/50mm and 120mm main guns and weapon pods for anti-tank guided missiles and machine guns. The turret can support extensive sensor integrations as part of the BAE Systems iFighting™ concept.
The MkIV has qualified active protection system. The vehicle chassis has active damping feature in the base offering to enhance stability. It has fourth generation NGVA Standard Electronic Architecture that makes sensor data fusion effective and also enables real time parallel data processing. The new system architecture also supports machine learning algorithms and artificial intelligence.
The CV90120 variant has been designed to offer the capabilities alike a main battle tank in a comparatively lighter and more mobile vehicle. The vehicle can fire all standard NATO 120mm smooth bore ammunition. It features a modular defensive aid suite, radar and missile approach warner. Optional additional survivability enhancements include multi-spectral aerosol, active countermeasure system, and top attack radar.
CV90 international orders and deliveries
BAE Systems submitted a bid to the Czech Ministry of Defence to deliver CV90 IFVs in September 2021, under the BMP II replacement programme. The bid was submitted in partnership with VOP, Czech Republic’s state-owned defence integrator.
BAE Systems signed a $32m contract with Finland for upgrading the existing fleet of the Finnish Army’s CV90 fleet in July 2021. The lifecycle upgrades will be carried out between 2022 and 2026.
In January 2021, BAE Systems was awarded a $500m contract by the Dutch Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO) for the mid-life upgrade (MLU) of 122 CV9035NL vehicles with a new turret for the Royal Netherlands Army. The contract includes an option to upgrade 19 more vehicles. The upgrade aims to integrate a new turret and improved protection and ergonomics into the Dutch CV90s. The position of the main weapon will be changed for improved vehicle balance and adding variety of weapons for increased lethality.
The Norwegian Army ordered 20 additional CV90 IFV worth more than $50m to increase its fleet to 164 vehicles, in February 2021. The new order of 12 engineering and eight multi-carrier CV90 models is expected for delivery in 2023. BAE Systems Hägglunds along with Ritek will deliver the vehicles. The participation of Ritek will ensure the localisation with up to 30 Norwegian suppliers participating in the programme.
The Netherlands completed the delivery of 44 used CV90 infantry fighting vehicles to Estonia in 2019.
The Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation placed a $750m contract with BAE Systems to upgrade existing CV90 vehicles and deliver new CV90 vehicles for the Norwegian Army, in June 2012. The contract included upgrade of the existing fleet of 103 vehicles and delivery of 144 new CV90 vehicles, including 74 IFVs, 21 reconnaissance, 15 forward command, 16 engineering, 16 multirole variants and two vehicles for driver training.
In March 2005, Saab Systems was selected to develop a battlefield management system for Swedish Army CV9040 vehicles. Deliveries began in 2008.