HMMWV (Humvee) High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, United States of America

HMMWV Humvee High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle

The high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV or Humvee) is a tactical vehicle designed and produced to replace the US Army's current tactical vehicles in the 0.25t to 1.25t range. It is manufactured by AM General LLC at its Mishawaka industrial plant. More than 50 countries and military organisations operate these vehicles.

HMMWV development

In 1979, the US Army issued a draft specification for the new tactical vehicle which led the development of the HMMWV. The US Army gave contracts to three contenders: AM General LLC, Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental to design and develop 11 prototype HMMWVs (six weapon carriers and five utility vehicles). Testing was conducted over rocky hills, deep sand, 60in-deep water, desert heat and arctic snow over 600,000 miles.

In 1981, the US Army awarded a contract to AM General to produce additional prototypes of the tactical vehicle for further tests. The development and operational testing was conducted in 1982 and, in 1983, the US Army awarded a contract to AM General to manufacture 55,000 HMMWVs of which 39,000 were for the US Army and the remaining vehicles for the US Marine Corps, US Air Force and US Navy.

In 1989, the HMMWV entered combat as part of Operation Just Cause, the US invasion of Panama.

M-1151A1 HMMWV upgrade

"The HMMWV entered combat as part of Operation Just Cause, the US invasion of Panama."

In 2008, the US Army fielded a new variant, the M-1151A1, to the National Training Centre. The M-1151A1 is fitted with a fragmentation kit 5 (FK 5) and objective gunner's protection kit. The FK 5 provides IED blast protection and small arms protection while the objective gunner's protection kit provides the gunner to view the battlefield with high safety through the transparent armoured glass. Later, in 2009, AM General launched the high-end armour kit fragmentation kit 7 (FRAG 7) for the M1151 up-armoured HMMWV.

HMMWV orders, deliveries and recapitalisation

In 1983, AM General received an initial production contract worth $1.2bn to produce 2,334 HMMWVs as a first increment of the total order of 55,000 vehicles. During 1984, the production of these vehicles began and the first deliveries were made in 1985. By 1991, 72,000 HMMWVs were produced including the international sales.

Multiyear contracts to produce the HMMWV were awarded to AM General for another 33,000 vehicles. Orders for an additional 20,000 vehicles from over 40 international governments have been received since 1991. In total, 190,000 units had been produced by 2008.

In 2000, a production contract to manufacture 2,962 trucks in the M998A2 series was awarded to AM General. The contract will run until 2007 with six single-year increments. The contract period was later on extended to 2009. AM General has delivered more than 85,000 trucks under this contract.

In August 2010, the company signed a $619m contract with the US Army to deliver 2,526 HMMWVs for the Afghan police force and National Guard. The US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) placed two contracts for 153 HMMWVs in May 2010. The army placed a $546m contract for 2,845 HMMWVs in March 2011.

In April 2011, the US Army released a second request for information (RFI) for the competitive HMMWV recapitalisation programme. The programme is intended to upgrade around 60,000 older model HMMWVs to like-new condition vehicles with high levels of protection. The major contenders BAE Systems, Oshkosh and AM General developed kits for the HMMWV recap programme. The first RFI published in January 2010 was denied by US Congress.

HMMWV features

The HMMWV is a lightweight, diesel-powered, four-wheel-drive tactical vehicle built on the M998 chassis common to all of its configurations allowing it to carry military equipment including machine guns and anti-tank missile launchers.

The vehicle is 6ft high, 7ft wide and 15ft long. The chassis is a steel frame with boxed frame rails and five cross members constructed from high-grade alloy steel. The body is made of aluminium which reduces the weight and provides high resistance to corrosion.

"The HMMWV is a lightweight, diesel-powered, four-wheel-drive tactical vehicle."

The gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of the M998 HMMWV is 7,700lb with a curb weight of 5,200lb. At maximum payload of 2,500lb the vehicle can reach a maximum speed of 65mph. It has seating options of 1+1 or 2+2 based on the configuration. It uses a 12V/24V electrical system and has a fuel tank with a capacity of 95l.

The HMMWV has disk brakes fitted on all four wheels. The disk brakes are mounted inboard to the wheels outside of each differential.

Mission variants

The changing requirements of armies across the world have driven the changes in the HMMWV models and equipments. The HMMWV has four different models namely the A2 series vehicles, reliability extended vehicles, expanded-capacity vehicles and international vehicles.

HMMWV A2 Series

The A2 series HMMWVs are fitted with a 6.5l V8 diesel engine with 160hp power rating and a four-speed automatic transmission. The common A2 series vehicles have a GVWR of 10,300lb and can carry a payload of 4,400lb at a maximum speed of 70mph. The key additional features include improved steering wheel and column, new rear seats, increased cargo capacity, improved brake pedal and an improved 9,000lb winch. They are also manufactured with the CTIS configuration for higher mobility. The vehicles under this model include M1097A2, M1097A2, M1123, M1097A2, M1025A2, M1043A2/1045A2, M997A2, and M1035A2.

Reliability extended HMMWVs

In 2006, AM General began the development of reliability extended HMMWVs. The key inclusions are a geared fan drive, new cool pack and shroud, new shock absorbers, new A-arm bushings, re-engineered geared hub assembly and new parking brakes. The M1151, M1152 and M1165 are the three vehicles under this model.

HMMWV ECV expanded capacity vehicle

The expanded capacity vehicle (ECV) HMMWV has been developed to carry high payloads with same performance levels. The most common vehicle weighs 2.5t and has a payload capacity of 5,100lb. It is powered by a turbocharged 6.5l V8 diesel engine. The key vehicles of this model comprise the M1113, M1114, M1116, M1151 w/AC, M1151A, M1151A1 w/B1, M1152 w/AC, M1152A1, M1152A1 w/B2, M1165 w/AC, M1165A1 and M1165A1 w/B3.

"In 2006, AM General began the development of reliability extended HMMWVs."

The international models are the vehicles produced in collaboration with foreign companies. AM General has joined hands with many international players to such as Swiss firm Mowag and Turkish company Otokar, which has designed, tested and manufactured exceptional vehicles. The Eagle and Cobra are the two international models.

The HMMWV has over 15 configurations such as cargo carriers, troop carriers, armament carriers, ambulance and shelter carriers.

All of the variants have a common chassis, engine and transmission with 44 interchangeable parts fitted in various positions.


The M998 HMMWV is fitted with a 6.2l V8 fuel-injected, liquid cooled, diesel compression ignition engine that generates 150hp at 3,000rpm. It also has three-speed automatic transmission with a two-speed, locking, chain driven transfer case.


The HMMWV is fitted with double A-arm independent suspension front and rear, coil springs and hydraulic double-acting shock absorbers for high off-road mobility. This system provides 16in ground clearance in normal load conditions. It has a track of 72in. The vehicle offers 40% of slide slope, 60% of slope-climbing and 60in of water fording capacities, making it an outstanding off-road vehicle.

The HMMWV is air transportable, droppable and can be sling-loaded by helicopters. A C-13 Hercules aircraft can carry three HMMWVs and a C-5A Galaxy 15. In addition, the vehicle can be dropped by the low-altitude parachute extraction system.

The Global Armoured and Counter-IED Vehicles Market 2011-2021

This project forms part of our recent analysis and forecasts of the global armoured and counter-IED vehicles market available from our business information platform Strategic Defence Intelligence. For more information click here or contact us: EMEA: +44 20 7936 6783; Americas: +1 415 439 4914; Asia Pacific: +61 2 9947 9709 or via email.