The return to HIW or conventional warfare from a period of Western Powers’ focus on asymmetrical or low intensity conflict has coincided with both Russian Armed Forces’ modernisation and reform programs, and Chinese modernisation reaching maturity. These circumstances are prominent drivers for force realignments and threat matrix regeneration, and the corresponding procurement patterns, amongst Western States.

Listed below are the major milestones in the journey of the defence industry, as identified by GlobalData.

1482 – Leonardo DaVinci designs the first enclosed armoured vehicle.

1859 – Invention internal combustions engine.

1870 – Prussia successfully employs manoeuvre warfare against France, commonly known as Kesselschlacht (cauldron warfare).

1916 – First use of Tank in combat.

1918 – First tank on tank combat, at Villers-Bretonneux.

1920 – USSR identifies operational level of warfare.

1939 – Start of World War Two, Germany successfully employs manoeuvre warfare during early stages, USSR perfects operational level.

1941 – Germany invades the USSR.

1943 – The Battle of Kursk, the largest armoured engagement in history is fought.

1950 – The Korean War starts.

1967 – War between Israel, Egypt and Syria primarily.

1973 – October War between Israel Egypt and Syria.

1980 – Start of the Iran-Iraq war.

1990 – Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

1991 – First Gulf War.

2001 – US and its coalition of Allies invade Afghanistan.

2003 – Invasion of Iraq.

2004 – Houthi rebellion starts in Yemen.

2006 – Aby Ayyub Al Masri announces the creation of the Islamic State of Iraq.

2008 – Russia invades Georgia.

2013 – A French-led coalition initiates Operation Serval in Mali.

2014 – Russia invades Ukraine.

2019 – India and Pakistan start a new round of hostilities in the Kargil region.

2020 – India and China skirmish with handheld weapons alone, along their mutual border.

This is an edited extract from the High Intensity Warfare (HIW) / High Intensity Conflict (HIC) – Thematic Research report produced by GlobalData Thematic Research.